Files and Networking
Computer programs are only useful if they interact with the rest of the world in some way. This interaction is referred to as input/output, or I/O. Up until now, this book has concentrated on just one type of interaction: interaction with the user, through either a graphical user interface or a command-line interface. But the user is only one possible source of information and only one possible destination for information. We have already encountered one other type of input/output, since TextIO can read data from files and write data to files. However, Java has an input/output framework that provides much more power and flexibility than does TextIO, and that covers other kinds of I/O in addition to files. Most importantly, it supports communication over network connections. In Java, input/output involving files and networks is based on streams, which are objects that support I/O commands that are similar to those that you have already used. In fact, standard output (System.out) and standard input (System.in) are examples of streams.
Working with files and networks requires familiarity with exceptions, which were covered in Chapter 8. Many of the subroutines that are used can throw exceptions that require mandatory exception handling. This generally means calling the subroutine in a try..catch statement that can deal with the exception if one occurs.