(For any commands not listed below try typing "man" or
"man -k" followed by the command name) File and Directory handling
cat stands for concatenate and takes any number of file names as
arguments. The contents of the files are printed to the standard output
(usually the screen) one after another.
more takes any number of files as arguments and displays them one
after another on the screen, pausing between screenfulls. Press the
<space> bar to continue.
tail takes a file as its argument and prints out the last 10 lines
of the file.
cp copies files, from its first argument to its second.
mv renames files, from its first argument to its second.
chmod changes the permissions on a file, i.e. who can read,
write and execute it. The first arguments determine how the permissions
are changed and all successive arguments are files to operate on.
(Type man chmod for details).
rm deletes files. Once removed, files can never be recovered so use
this command with great care.
mkdir takes an argument and makes a new directory with that name.
rmdir takes a directory name as argument and deletes that directory.
This only works if the directory is empty.
cd changes the directory you are working in. If called without any
arguments it takes you back to your home directory.
pwd prints your current working directory.
ls lists the files in the current working directory. If you give a
different directory as an argument then the files in that directory are
listed instead. If you use ls -l a long format listing is produced.
Use ls -al to see the `dot files' as well.
passwd lets you change your password.
date prints the date and time.
hostname prints out the name of the machine you are working on.
who shows who is logged into the workstations near to you.
man takes a unix topic as argument and prints its manual entry. The
command man -kstring supplies unix topics related to a given
lp takes file name arguments and prints these files on the line printer.
sleep takes a numeric argument and does nothing for that number of seconds.
bc is a desk calculator. You type bc on a line by itself and
then type in expressions for it to evaluate. Gives the answer to things
like 3+4. For real numbers you will have to say scale=10. Finish
wc takes filenames as arguments and counts the number of characters,
words and lines in each.
fg brings the current background job into the foreground.
bg runs the current stopped job (if any) in the background.
C-z suspends the current foreground job.
The interrupt character is C-c (i.e. hold the control key down
and press c).